Tag Archives: Lèse Majesté

Why is the Thai junta paranoid about pictures and news of king Wachiralongkorn?

Giles Ji Ungpakorn

The Thai junta has warned that anyone who follows, contacts, or shares posts online with three prominent critics – historian Somsak Jeamteerasakul, journalist and author Andrew MacGregor Marshall, and former diplomat Pavin Chachavalpongpun – will be prosecuted under the Computer Crimes Act. Why is this happening? To understand this paranoid behaviour we need to look at the role of the Thai king today.

However, latest article about King Wachiralongkorn by my friend Claudio Sopranzetti in Aljazeera is disappointing because it is a sensational and unreal depiction of the awful Wachiralongkorn [see http://bit.ly/2oXtDae ].

Firstly, Sopranzetti claims that the king is trying to wrestle power from the military junta. Nothing could be further from the truth. Wachiralongkorn is on the throne because the military put him there. Like his father before him, he is totally beholden to the military who use the monarchy to justify their own power and “right” to intervene in politics.

The idea that Wachiralongkorn has been increasing his power is also parroted by The Guardian.

When talking about “power”, it is important to understand that it is a concrete thing, not some abstract concept. Political power comes hand in hand with the “power to shape society and politics”.

There was never any evidence that former King Pumipon ever had such power. He never shaped Thai foreign policy or had any influence on the direction of domestic political policies. He could not order military coups because he did not control the military. Pumipon always went with the flow, at times praising Taksin and his government. Pumipon shared his right-wing conservatism with most of the military and bureaucratic elites. It wasn’t his ideas that influenced events. He had no influence on the policies used by the Taksin government to dig Thailand out of the 1996 economic crisis. The anti-Taksin movement which emerged much later was not his creation. The conservatives merely claimed they were monarchists in order to try to obtain legitimacy. Pumipon once told the military not to buy submarines because they would “get stuck in the mud of the Gulf of Siam”, but no one took any notice of him. His “Sufficiency Economy” ideology was repeatedly quoted by the elites, but never acted upon by anyone. [See more here:  http://bit.ly/2oppTvb ]

Wachiralongkorn is less politically aware than his father, being completely uninterested in Thai society and politics. There is zero evidence that he is trying to wrestle power from the military in order to influence domestic political policy or foreign policy. [See also http://bit.ly/2kBwOlm ]

Secondly, Sopranzetti, and other commentators, can only raise the issue of Wachiralongkorn’s insistence on amending the constitution in areas that merely affect the organisation of the royal household, as an example of his quest for “power”. But Wachiralongkorn merely wanted to control his personal household staff and ensure that when he spent a lot of time in his palace in Germany, someone wouldn’t appoint a regent over his head without his approval. This is hardly an example of Wachiralongkorn amassing power to rule over the Thai population. As I have previously written, “Wachiralongkorn wants the Crown, but not the job”. He isn’t interested in the slightest in Affairs of State. His only interest is in his own “affairs” with numerous women, some of whom have been promoted to high army ranks. He also once promoted his former dog to an air force rank.

Wachiralongkorn’s so-called “power” is much more akin to that of a petty local Mafia boss who wishes to protect his patch.

As for the so-called “fear” factor, it must be frightening for those in his immediate household circle to serve such a self-centred and erratic boss. But a WikiLeaks episode some years ago exposed the fact that many high-ranking generals viewed Wachiralongkorn with irritation bordering on contempt.

Thirdly, Sopranzetti claims that the student activist Pai Daodin was jailed under the lèse-majesté law as soon as Wachiralongkorn became king, implying that Wachiralongkorn had something to do with it. This is conspiratorial nonsense. Pai Daodin is a pro-democracy activist and constant thorn in the side of the military junta. They were itching to get him for months and when he shared the BBC’s biography of Wachiralongkorn on social media, it was just the excuse they were looking for. We need to remember that hundreds of other Thais shared the same article but have not been charged with lèse-majesté.

Finally, Sopranzetti fails to understand that in order to be able to use the present and past king as a legitimising figure in their class rule over the population, the military and elites have to give them something in return. Since the image of the monarchy is there to protect the elites, the monarchy acts like a guard dog with all bark and no bite. But guard dogs need to be thrown a bone every day to keep them in line. The bone thrown to the Thai monarchy is the immense wealth given to them, the freedom for them to live their lives as they please, and the willingness of the elites to pamper the royal ego by grovelling on the floor in front of them and pretending to be under the dust of their feet. This latter bit of theatre is for the benefit of ordinary citizens while real power is in the hands of the elites.

Just like the top bosses of most religions who claim to speak on behalf of non-existing gods, the military claim to speak on behalf of the monarchy.

In addition to this, in order to make this trick work, the monarchy needs to appear to be worthy of some respect. Yet Wachiralongkorn’s personal life style makes this difficult. That is why the exiles   Somsak Jeamteerasakul, Pavin Chachavalpongpun and Andrew MacGregor Marshall, have been singled out by the junta for publishing 2016 photos from Germany, of the tattooed Wachiralongkorn with his skimpily dressed girlfriend. They have also published news of his latest escapades. This poses a danger to his credibility to be a monarch in the eyes of most Thais and they are  therefore a threat to the military.

Discrediting the monarchy is useful in undermining the junta, but when taken to extremes, sensational stories about the royals tend to titillate people who are bored with reality while having little benefit in explaining the nature of Thai political society. Most importantly, they add nothing to the discussion about how to overthrow the dictatorship and build democracy through mass movements. Focusing only on the royals lets the military and their anti-democratic allies off the hook.

The Dictatorship’s so-called reconciliation is a sham

Giles Ji Ungpakorn

The Prayut Dictatorship’s so-called reconciliation is just a sham. It is merely an attempt at forcing the pro-democracy side to concede to a form of long term “Guided Democracy” at gun point.

The various pompous generals have been lying once again, claiming that the military is a “neutral party” in the political crisis and that it can therefore act as an unbiased referee for reconciliation.

Yet, how can the military be neutral when it was the very institution that overthrew the elected Taksin government in 2006?

How can the military be neutral when it deliberately stood by, doing nothing, and allowed the yellow shirts to take over government house and the international airports?

How can the military be neutral when it organised the unelected Abhisit Government from a military camp and imposed him on the Thai people as their Prime Minister? Abhisit’s party, the Democrats, have never won an overall majority in any Thai election.

28361_397295669924_537184924_3886553_2132878_n

How can the military be neutral when it deliberately used snipers and tanks to shoot unarmed pro-democracy red shirts who were demanding elections in 2010?

How can Prayut’s military be neutral when he urged people not to vote for Yingluk’s Pua Thai Party in the 2011 elections?

797d352580e9009a7d6fd268054fbd65

How can the military be neutral when they deliberately did absolutely nothing to protect the 2014 elections from Democrat Party mobsters, some led by the fascist monk “Isara”, who is close to Generalissimo Prayut? There was no attempt by the military to defend the democratic process or the rule of law. Prayut was just waiting for an excuse to stage a coup.

1328008185

How can the military be neutral when the current dictatorship is using the lèse-majesté law against opponents of the military junta in order to jail pro-democracy activists? How can it be neutral if it hauled large numbers of pro-democracy activists into military camps for “attitude-changing” sessions so that they would stop opposing the military? Arrests and harassment of those who believe in democracy continues to this day.

How can the Thai military ever be neural when it has a long history of destroying democracy and engaging in corrupt practices over the last 70 years?

The true cause of the Thai political crisis is not the fault of “bad politicians” as the military likes to claim. It is because the military, the conservative elites and the reactionary middle-classes, including the NGOs, failed to respect election results and viewed ordinary citizens with contempt, claiming that they were “too ignorant to deserve the right to vote”.

Whatever we might think of them, Takisin’s parties won at election times over and over again because they were genuinely popular with the electorate for very logical reasons. The universal health care scheme was one such reason. This is why the current shower of anti-reformists, appointed by the junta, are busy crafting a “Guided Democracy” system where the views of the military and the conservatives will be more powerful than the will of the people. This is enshrined in the junta’s awful 20 year political strategy and road map.

So talk of “reconciliation” by the military is merely forced capitulation to the junta’s plans so that they can hold sham elections.

But what would genuine reconciliation for peace and democracy look like?

  1. The military would remove itself from politics and all the generals who have been involved in military coups would resign from the ranks, retire, and promise never to engage in politics. The military budget would be slashed and the various sections of the armed forces placed under genuine democratic civilian control.
  2. The Democrat Party and various anti-democratic mobsters would have to agree to abide by the results of all democratic elections.
  3. The military constitution would be scrapped and fresh democratic elections would be held under the 1997 constitution until that constitution can be improved at a later date. An electoral commission would be chosen from a balance of representatives of various political groups. Foreign observers might be necessary to ensure clean elections.
  4. All political prisoners would be released and political trials stopped. Authoritarian laws such as lèse-majesté and the military’s various censorship laws would be abolished.

Of course this is just a pipe-dream so long as a vigorous pro-democracy social movement is not present to force through such a democratic conciliation process.

 

Thailand is run by barbarians in uniform

Giles Ji Ungpakorn

As some prisoners are released under a traditional amnesty on the occasion of Thailand having a new king, the jails continue to fill up with political prisoners.

61446

Latest victim is Jatupat Boonpatraksa, better known as “Pai Dao Din”. Naturally Pai is merely “guilty” of opposing the blood-stained Generalissimo Prayut and his junta. A well-known student activist and member of the “Dao Din” student group from the north-east, Pai has long been a thorn in the side of the soldiers who destroyed democracy and who are now busy helping themselves to wealth and more power. The Dao Din group joined up with the New Democracy Movement student group from Bangkok to protest against the junta and its new authoritarian constitution. These students also highlighted military corruption.

The barbarians in uniform have been out to get Pai for a while. The opportunity came when the BBC Thai language website posted a truthful biography of the new king Wachiralongkorn. When Pai “shared” this post on social media he was selected for the special treatment: a lèse-majesté charge. Others sharing this post have not been charged and anyway, Thai citizens have a right to know about the man who has been forced upon them as the new king by the military. Ironically most politically conscious Thais already know that Wachiralongkorn is an unintelligent play-boy thug.

Pai’s hearings in court were held in secret and he has been repeatedly denied bail even to sit his final examinations, which could deny him his university degree. Added to this is the disgusting anal searches that he has to endure “because he might smuggle drugs into prison”. It all amounts to gross bullying, victimisation and a total lack of justice.

Three thousand six hundred people signed a petition for Pai’s release and groups of activists have made solidarity visits to the prison. The authorities tried unsuccessfully to sabotage their train journey. Unfortunately we are yet to see the building of a mass social movement that can actually force the junta from power and release the political prisoners.

31813018640_19d28e6331

When a group of activists lit candles outside the court to call for Pai’s release on bail, a junta flunkey Seup-pong Sipongkun, Spokesman for the Courts, warned the young activists that they were “in contempt of court”. So the junta’s crack-down on freedom of speech includes banning any comment about Thailand’s contemptable kangaroo courts!

Of course, Pai should not just be released on bail. The false charges against him and all the other political prisoners, such as Somyot Pruksakasemsuk and those whose names are not well-known by the public, should be dropped. Somyot sent Pai an open letter from prison to boost Pai’s morale.

16106052_1108116175977007_5208642083061946263_n

Meanwhile the leadership of the UDD, or what was known as the Red Shirts, have been sentenced to jail terms for various non-offences including leading a peaceful protest outside Privy Councillor General Prem’s house ten years ago! Not only is there a lack of justice in Thailand, but the wheels of injustice move at a snail’s pace. Of course, none of the whistle blowing and airport blocking yellow shirts are in jail. Nor is Prayut’s favourite fascist monk, who disrupted the last elections, in jail either.

Generalissimo Prayut has stated that so-called “reconciliation” should take place without the release of prisoners. Yet, the existence of political prisoners is a mark of a barbaric and uncivilised society. Prayut’s rants are known for being stupid and erratic, more so even than those of Donald Trump. It’s almost as if he is on hallucinating drugs. In a recent rant he said that he believed that the Thai language could become the international language of the world as Thailand became a super power. Perhaps he was dreaming of being the dictator of the world!!

Reports from across the border in Burma indicate that Aung San Suu Kyi’s government is also keeping up the pace of jailing political prisoners who dare to criticise her political team and her close friends, the barbaric generals. Social media in Burma faces restrictive laws just like Thailand. It is good to see the two despotic regimes working in harmony after centuries of warfare between the two countries!

Just to add to the barbarity, the “hang-em and flog-em” brigade in Thailand are calling for the death penalty for politicians who cause serious loss to the treasury through corruption. Naturally the corrupt generals who forced their way into power at gun-point and then set themselves, their friends and relatives up in multiple lucrative state jobs, will continue to enjoy impunity. So will those generals and royals who squander state money on weapons, tanks and lavish life styles.

The country is being ruled by barbarians.

Twenty years of military dominated politics in store

Giles Ji Ungpakorn

As the year 2016 draws to a close we can look forward to years of military dominated politics. The “20 year National Strategy”, set down by the junta and its hireling law-makers, is designed to position the military jack-boot firmly on the back of any “elected” government in the future. Government policies will have to conform to this backward National Strategy, no matter what the electorate desire and naturally the National Strategy is royalist and neo-liberal. Of course the term “elected” is a very impressionistic description, since any future elections will be designed to obtain the “best” result, allowing for a weak puppet government palatable to the military.

But the so-called elections are in the far-distant future because king Pumipon conveniently died a few months ago, allowing the military to spend millions on the ceremonies associated with his death, which are being used to whip-up royalist mania. Pumipon’s death will allow the whole political process to be put on ice. There will not be any elections in 2017. They probably will be postponed to late 2018 at the earliest, and if the military appointed rubber stamp assembly doesn’t finish its drafting of terrible laws, the election could be rescheduled into 2019.

The junta’s draft political party law shows that they want to put political parties in a straight-jacket. Naturally anyone wishing to set up a party will be vetted, in best authoritarian traditions and any party which doesn’t fit the junta’s requirements will be disqualified.

The law raises the level of punishment for “selling” political positions to ridiculous extremes. People could be executed for doing this!! But naturally, no punishment for wrong-doing applies to non-MPs who become Prime Minister. This is just in case the Generalissimo were to be invited to this top position once again in the future.

What is more, this draft law stipulates that political parties must have a minimum of 500 founding members who each pay at least 2000 baht to the party. This amount of money represents about 25% of what most workers earn in a month. So the poor farmers and ordinary workers cannot possibly found a political party. Once again we see the results of “A Coup for the Rich”!

o

In 2017 we shall continue to see the grotesque play act of men in military uniform pretending to grovel to the demented king Wachiralongkorn in a pathetic attempt to make us believe that they are “taking orders” from this imbecile. Word has it that Wachiralongkorn has appointed a number of his women to high-ranking but powerless military positions, which no doubt will have to be funded by the public. However, in an honest moment Wachiralongkorn said that his heart was warmed that General Prem Tinsulanon was re-appointed as head of the Privy Council. Without experienced generals on the Privy Council, the clueless king would not know how to best serve the ruling class. But the Privy Councillors need to be patient as Wachiralongkorn is a slow-learner.

Meanwhile the repression and censorship continue. The new “Computer Censorship and Democratic Crimes Law” has passed the junta appointed parliament and government control of the internet is set to further increase with the future introduction of a “single internet gateway”. There has been sporadic opposition to these measures, but the dictatorship needs to be overthrown in its entirety  in order to fully achieve freedom of speech.

It has been made “serious crime” to “like” or “share” the BBC Thai service’s web post of Wachiralongkorn’s biography, despite the fact that most Thais already know the truth. The whole of the ruling class and society are to be set in an official state of denial. “Lèse-majesté” is designed to silence the truth about royalty and the military. Loyalty is to tell lies. Freedom is Slavery! Ignorance is Strength! Dictatorship is Democracy!

43-2

But there is some good news. His Excellency, Generalissimo Prayut has been awarded the position of “Great Political leader of exercise” by the World Health Organisation, for his participation in outdoor aerobics! Well this is according to junta sources anyway. It is difficult to independently verify the truth about this, but since the junta is made up of self-declared “good people”, we ought to trust them, I’m sure.

3cc70d405abf4bc19c00760221cb58a0

At the risk of repeating myself, the fact of the matter is that without building a mass social movement to overthrow the military, the terrible state of Thai politics will continue. Remember that the middle-classes and the conservatives are totally responsible for this state of affairs and the NGOs also played their part in the destruction of democracy.

As 2016 changes to 2017, spare a thought for Thailand’s lèse-majesté political prisoners, especially Somyot Pruksakasemsuk.

Untitled

Should you go on holiday to Thailand?

Giles Ji Ungpakorn

The image of foreign tourists lounging on the beautiful beaches of Thailand, oblivious to the present reality of the state of Thai politics and society, with its military dictatorship, suppression of free speech and its political prisoners and exiles, is extremely distasteful. It is perhaps only less distasteful when compared to the appalling image well-off Western tourists enjoying their holiday in Haiti while the local population were ravaged by an earthquake and a cholera epidemic with no clean water or medical facilities.

To be honest, I fail to understand people who travel to another country for a holiday, or for any other reason, without attempting a basic understanding of the state of society in those countries in order to act in a sensitive manner.

But this short article is not really aimed at those idiots who go through life prioritising their own happiness, oblivious to what is going on around them.

Nor is this short article about “safety” issues in travelling to Thailand, where the notoriously inefficient and corrupt police not only fail to deal with crimes against tourists, but are may be even involved in the crimes themselves by colluding with the various mafias that control holiday resorts. And of course, the military who now control the police are no better. [See http://bit.ly/1WjMcfF ]

The issue about whether politically progressive and conscious people should visit Thailand is complicated. I am not really an advocate of individual boycotts which do not work. Collective action is so much more effective. Academics taking a collective decision to boycotting meetings in Thailand would be very useful, but most academics are not politically progressive and conscious people. They are more concerned with their ability to carry out research in Thailand, which means bowing to the diktats of the regime.

I myself have in the past holidayed in Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia, all of which were and still are dictatorships with political prisoners and a lack of freedom. I never travelled to Burma because at the time the leader of the pro-democracy opposition asked tourists not to come, especially because the generals were creaming off the profits from the tourist industry. Yet this same former opposition figure is now a supporter of oppression against the Rohingya.

somyot-shackled

If you must take a trip for a holiday in Thailand, you should make a serious attempt to educate yourself about what is going on in the country right now. You should understand the present royalist hype without falling into the trap of seeing all Thais as king-lovers. You should understand the repression and be aware of the lèse-majesté prisoners locked up in appalling Thai jails. You should be aware of the lack of justice, the state of prisons and the lèse-majesté law itself. [See http://bit.ly/298T4ZU ]

You should not on any account take part in any nonsense king-related activities or spare an ounce of respect for the royalism of some Thais. You might prudently keep your head down over such matters so as not to be prosecuted or hounded by violent royalist mobs.

You should be aware that the mainstream media in English is totally under the thumb of the military junta.

You should be aware that Thailand and many Thais are very racist due to ruling class socialisation. People from neighbouring countries suffer most from this racism and oppression and you will probably be served food or drinks by oppressed migrant workers earning less than the minimum wage. The daily minimum wage in Thailand is 300 baht. Please compare that with your daily expenditure while you are on holiday. [See http://bit.ly/1JaeTJY ]

You should be aware that Thailand is a very unequal society, with a huge gap between rich and poor. This is not just economic, but also social. People of lower status are referred to in derogatory terms, use different words to describe their “superiors” and often have to grovel on the ground in front of those with more power.

Finally you should know that Thai women do not have the right to choose legal and safe abortion and therefore control their bodies. This is enforced in the name of Buddhism, while this same official interpretation of Buddhism condones military violence. Thai women also have to refer to themselves as “little mouse” to show that they are inferior to men. [See http://bit.ly/2hivBxz ]

Whether you chose to holiday in Thailand is your decision. But please don’t tell us exiles about your holiday because it causes us pain as we can never go back to Thailand.

The stupidity of Royal Language in Thailand

Giles Ji Ungpakorn

kinggrovel

In Thailand a special “Royal Language” is enforced when writing or talking about members of the royal family. The vocabulary in this royal language comes from Sanskrit via Cambodia. It applies to verbs used to describe the various actions of the royals, nouns for parts of their bodies and also their belongings. Not only this, the royals can never be called by their names but must be referred to by long strung-out titles which describe how ordinary people are lower than the dust beneath their feet.

31449078786_ca795378a9

The new King-name of the odious Wachralongkorn is a good example. It is: “SomdetPrajaoYuHuaMahaWachiralongkornBdintornTepyawaRangkun” which means “His Majesty, God Above Us ,The Great Wachiralongkorn, Succeeding in all Future Endeavours, Descended from Angels.” And this is the name of the guy who failed his education and abuses women!!

royals

The sight of the dysfunctional and awful members of the royal family being described in such complicated terms, inherited from Cambodia, is farcical in itself because most royalist despise Cambodians. However the prolonged illness of king Pumipon before his timely death added to this farce.

Official declarations from the Palace about the king’s health were peppered with royal language describing his fevers, his lungs, his breathing, his kidneys, his urine, his blood, his head etc. Doctors were described as “offering” treatment in terms similar to offerings made to the gods. The words used were so complicated and unknown to the vast majority of Thais that each sentence had to carry translations into Thai in brackets behind each royal word. Otherwise we would not have understood any of the health bulletins.

gjfajhkb7acea6ibfhfhb

In one of the final bulletins, they even started to use English. The term “Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)”, which the king was receiving, was described only in English. This might have been because they hadn’t had time to think up the royal terminology for such treatment or it could be that they wanted most Thais, who do not understand English, not to understand that Pumipon had serious kidney dysfunction, was critically ill, and about to die.

Pumipon took up an entire floor at an important state hospital in Bangkok. They even seemed to allow his dog to enter the hospital, but no doubt it only carried special and harmless royal germs.

Another aspect of the use of royal language in Thailand is that it is applied to foreign royals like the parasites in the UK and even the Pope. This is in spite of the fact that royal language is never used in the West.

All this is designed to ram it down our throats that the royals are super-humans with a higher status than us mortals. It is designed to try to ensure that we accept that there is a “natural order” in society. For those tempted to ignore this, there is the despicable lèse-majesté law used to enforce “respect” for the royals and also to protect the military and conservative elites and even the king’s dog.

crown_prince_vajiralongkorn

Lèse-majesté is the oppressive law used to jail most political prisoners in Thailand today and many Thai exiles abroad, including myself, are living outside Thailand because of this law.

Forward to a truly democratic republic!!

Further reading: http://bit.ly/2cHdvPQ , http://bit.ly/1IcAlO9 , http://bit.ly/1pUMYo5

6th October: Why are Somsak, Jaran and Ji in political exile abroad?

Giles Ji Ungpakorn

Many events have been planned for the 40th anniversary of the 6th October 1976 blood-bath, and that is a good thing, especially because of the involvement of young people who are from a different generation. But the question which needs to be addressed today is: why is it that Somsak Jeamteerasakul, Jaran Ditapicha and Ji Ungpakorn are all now political exiles in Europe? All three academics have close links to the 6th October 1976 events.

To answer that question we need to explore the link between the military and the weak monarchy and how the military uses the monarchy to justify military coups and cold-blooded murder of unarmed civilians. We need to explore how to abolish Lèse-majesté. We need to discuss whether Thailand should be a republic. But most of all, we need to discuss how to build a mass movement to topple the current military junta.

Somehow I feel that none of these issues will be discussed at this year’s events.

Latest news concerning the 6th October commemoration is that Joshua Wong, the Hong Kong activist who was due to speak at the 6th October event in Thailand, was been refused entry to Thailand on the request of the Chinese dictatorial regime. He was detained at Bangkok airport and has been sent back to Hong Kong. This is another important issue that needs to be discussed.

On the 6th October 2000, the monument for the 6th October at Thammasart, which had been planned since 1996, was finally finished. Those attending the opening ceremony were in the majority ex-October generation. No high-up officials of the Thai state came, or were invited. The International was played as the monument was unveiled. One column in the Thai language daily Krungtep Turakit reported the ceremony under the headline “socialism will return”. It is clear that any revival of the Thai socialist and democratic tradition will have to confront the history of 6th October and all its legacies head-on. There is no real mystery concerning the event, although those who wish to cover-up the truth claim this. The main point that the Thai ruling class collectively resorted to violence and brutality in order to destroy the struggle for social justice and democracy is obvious to all who care to look. The ruling class have never changed their spots and this is important to discuss today. The killing of pro-democracy Red Shirts by General Prayut and the conservatives in 2010 proves this. The human rights abuses by Taksin before that only add to the evidence. Today we once again live under a corrupt and brutal military dictatorship headed by Prayut. The modern Left has to win the argument with significant sections of society that 1976 shows the real nature of those who control the capitalist system and continue to rule over us to this day. Two even greater tasks of winning the argument for socialism and democracy involve, firstly, learning the lessons from both the achievements and mistakes of the Communist Party of Thailand (C.P.T.), and secondly, the re-examination post-C.P.T. ideology and the much needed methods of struggle by mass social movements in order to overthrow the present dictatorship.

Further reading: http://bit.ly/2d1iZbj  and http://bit.ly/1qGYT9r